Coenzyme Q10 & PQQ Clinical Trial

1. Assist in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 80 subjects with early-stage Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned to either a placebo or coenzyme Q10 group, with coenzyme Q10 administered at doses of 300, 600 or 1200 mg/d. Results showed that coenzyme Q 10 was safe and well-tolerated at doses of up to 1200 mg/d, and that, compared with the placebo group, subjects taking coenzyme Q10 had a The incidence of disability was lower in subjects taking coenzyme Q10 compared to the placebo group, and coenzyme Q10 may slow the progressive deterioration of function in Parkinson's disease. [1]

2. Improve migraine symptoms.

Thirty-one migraine patients were treated with Coenzyme Q10 at a dose of 150 mg per day. 61.3% of the patients experienced a greater than 50% reduction in the number of days with migraine, with the average number of days decreasing from 7.34 to 2.95 days. Migraine frequency was reduced by an average of 13.1% after 1 month of treatment and 55.3% after 3 months. The mean frequency of migraine attacks was 4.85 at baseline and 2.81 at the end of the study period. There were no side effects associated with the use of coenzyme Q10, making it an excellent migraine preventive agent. [2]

3. Maintain healthy blood pressure.
As an adjunctive treatment for primary hypertension, Coenzyme Q10 is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Eight studies have demonstrated an average decrease of 16 mmHg in systolic pressure and 10 mmHg in diastolic pressure. Coenzyme Q10 can be used as an adjunct or alternative to conventional drugs in the treatment of hypertension, and no significant side effects have been observed. [3]

4. Protect heart health
The use of Coenzyme Q10 after cardiac surgery has been shown to improve myocardial isoenzyme levels, left ventricular function and recovery time. Studies have shown that in high-risk patients with coenzyme Q10 deficiency (<0.6 μg/ml), low cardiac index (CI <2.4 l/m2/min), and low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF <35%) during cardiac surgery, who received 100 mg of coenzyme Q10 orally for 14 days prior to surgery and 30 days after surgery, oral coenzyme Q10 significantly improved blood and myocardial coenzyme Q10 and myocardial ATP, whereas in the control group, which did not take coenzyme Q10, patients' blood and tissue coenzyme Q10, tissue ATP levels, and cardiac function declined after surgery, and the recovery process was prolonged and complicated. [4]

5. Protects Blood Vessels, Reduces Inflammation
In a 12-week intervention study, 42 patients with coronary artery stenosis who had received at least one month of statin therapy were supplemented daily with 300 mg of coenzyme Q10. The results showed that plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity were significantly increased, while levels of inflammatory markers were significantly reduced following coenzyme Q10 supplementation. Supplementation with 300 mg of coenzyme Q10 per day was effective in enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and reducing inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) during statin therapy. [5]

6. Improve fertility.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 55 patients (aged 27-39 years) with sperm motility deficiencies who were treated with Coenzyme Q10 for 6 months and followed up for 3 months showed a significant increase in sperm cell levels of Coenzyme Q10 and sperm motility. Supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 increased Coenzyme Q10 levels in semen and was effective in ameliorating the problem of sperm motility deficiency in patients affected by idiopathic molluscum toxoplasmosis. It is also effective in improving sperm motility in patients affected by idiopathic soft spermatidiasis. [6]

7. Improvement of cognitive function
PQQ can improve the physiological state of the brain, which in turn improves cognitive function. Nakano et al. included 20 healthy subjects aged 50-70 years in a PQQ supplementation intervention, and the results showed that local blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the prefrontal lobe of the brain improved significantly after 12 weeks.[7] Itoh et al. studied 41 healthy elderly subjects, and the results showed that PQQ significantly improved attention and short-term memory. [7] Itoh et al. studied 41 healthy elderly subjects and showed that PQQ significantly improved attention and short-term memory. [8] Itoh et al.

8. Improvement of blood lipids
The results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of PQQ (20 mg/d) in 29 healthy subjects aged 40-57 years showed that after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment with an oral dose of 20 mg/d, the LDL cholesterol levels of the subjects were significantly reduced, and that PQQ could regulate lipid metabolism by promoting mitochondrial metabolism. [9]

9. Exercise Injury Repair
PQQ has protective effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and peroxidative damage. Professor Willoughby DS's team at Mary Hardin-Baylor University in the United States conducted a study that included 23 men. After the intervention group took 20mg of PQQ per day and underwent endurance exercise training for 6 weeks, their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-initiating factor-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) levels were significantly elevated, and PQQ was able to improve oxidative stress and reduce inflammation indicators. PQQ improves oxidative stress and reduces inflammatory markers. PQQ improves oxidative stress and reduces inflammatory markers.[10]

10. Improvement of skin condition
An intervention test on 22 healthy female subjects found that 20mg of PQQ orally per day for 8 weeks could significantly inhibit the loss of water from the meridian skin of the forearms of the hands, reduce the appearance of wrinkles and hyperpigmentation, and improve the skin's condition. [11]

[1]Shults CW, Oakes D, Kieburtz K, Beal MF, Haas R, Plumb S, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:1541-50.
[2]Rozen TD, Oshinsky ML, Gebeline CA, Bradley KC, Young WB, Shechter AL, et al. Open label trial of coenzyme Q10 as a migraine preventive. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:137-41.
[3]Rosenfeldt F, Hilton D, Pepe S, Krum H. Systematic review of effect of coenzyme Q10 in physical exercise, hypertension and heart failure. Biofactors. 2003;18:91-100.
[4]Judy WV, Stogsdill WW, Folkers K. Myocardial preservation by therapy with coenzyme Q10 during heart surgery. Clin Investig. 1993;71(8 suppl):S155-61.

[5]Lee, Bor-Jen et al. 「Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation (300 mg/day) on antioxidation and anti-inflammation in coronary artery disease patients during statins therapy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.」 Nutrition journal vol. 12,1 142. 6 Nov. 2013, doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-142

[6]Balercia, Giancarlo et al. 「Coenzyme Q10 treatment in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial.」 Fertility and sterility vol. 91,5 (2009): 1785-92. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.02.119

[7]Nakano M, Murayama Y, Hu L, et al. Effects of antioxidant supplements(BioPQQTM) on cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the prefrontal cortex[J]. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2016, 923: 215-222. 
[8]Itoh Y, Hine K, Miura H, et al. Effect of the antioxidant supplement pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (BioPQQTM) on cognitive functions[J]. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2016, 876: 319-325.
[9]Nakano M, Kawasaki Y, Suzuki N, et al. Effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt intake on the serum cholesterol levels of healthy Japanese adults[J]. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol(Tokyo), 2015, 61(3): 233-240.
[10]HWANG PS, MACHEK SB, CARDACI TD, et al. Effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplementation on aerobic exercise performance and indices of mitochondrial biogenesis in untrained men [J]. J Am Coll Nutr, 2020, 39(6): 547‒556.
[11]NAKANO M, KAMIMURA A, WATANABE F, et al. Effects of orally administered pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt on dry skin conditions in mice and healthy female subjects [J]. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol, 2015, 61(3): 241.